Background: Transforming Growth Factor Î² (TGF-Î²) is a cytokine regulator of inflammation that important in inhibited parasite growth and preventing inflammation. Andrographis paniculata was empirically used as traditional medicine in Indonesia to cure malaria by activating TGF-Î². Preliminary studies showed that AS201-01 tablets containing the ethyl acetate fraction of A. paniculata had been shown to inhibit the growth of Plasmodium berghei.
Aims: This study aims to determine the effect of the AS201-01 tablet on parasite inhibition and TGF-Î² expression in P.berghei infected mice placenta.
Methods: About 24 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups: healthy pregnant mice (normal) (G1), untreated infected pregnant mice (negative control) (G2), infected pregnant mice treated by AS201-01 tablets (G3), and infected pregnant mice treated with Dihydroartemisinine-piperaquine (positive control) (G4). About 1x106 parasitemia were infected on the 9th day of pregnancy, while therapy was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy. The placenta was collected at the 15th day of pregnancy. The parasite inhibition and TGF-Î² expression were evaluated using Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) Â and immunohistochemistry assay.
Results: The results showed that the parasite still found in the placenta of G2, G3, and G4 still, but parasite of placental in G2 was higher than G3 and G4. There was a significant difference in the parasite inhibition between G2 with G3 and G4 (p<0.05). In addition, the immunohistochemistry assay found that there was a significant difference in TGF-Î² expression between G2 with G3, G4, and G1 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Administration of the AS201-01 tablets inhibit parasite P. berghei and increase TGF-Î² expression on the placenta of infected mice.