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The role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Expression in pelvic organ prolapse: A literature review

  • Amilah Anis ,
  • Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati ,
  • Gatut Hardianto ,
  • Tri Hastono Setyohadi ,


Link of Video Abstract:


Menopause is a physiological process as women get older. Urogenital syndrome, sexual difficulties, and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are all common complaints among postmenopausal women, and these conditions can negatively impact their quality of life. There are still many unknowns regarding the pathophysiology and mechanisms of POP. Pelvic organ prolapse has been linked to the equilibrium of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is controlled by matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Menopausal women experience a variety of symptoms due to hormonal changes, from urinary tract disturbance, vaginal atrophy, vaginal shortening, up to genital prolapse. Due to the collagen's diminished contractility, POP happens. Matrix metalloproteinase is responsible for breaking down collagen, but TIMP prevents MMP from doing its job. In women with POP caused by the breakdown of the collagen network, MMP-9 exhibits the greatest rise. In order to preserve the health of fibroblasts and collagen in postmenopausal women, increased expression of MMP-9 and decreased expression of TIMP-1 are necessary, which results in a decreased incidence of POP. The expression of MMP-9 in prolapse patients was significantly higher than control patients. In addition, TIMP-1 expression levels were significantly decreased in prolapse patients. Damage to the ECM's equilibrium is caused by increased MMP-9 expression and decreased expression of timp-1, which leads to clinical signs of pelvic organ prolapse.


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How to Cite

Anis, A., Kurniawati, E. M., Hardianto, G., & Setyohadi, T. H. (2023). The role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Expression in pelvic organ prolapse: A literature review. Bali Medical Journal, 12(3), 2729–2734.




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Amilah Anis
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Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati
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Gatut Hardianto
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Tri Hastono Setyohadi
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