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Impact of gender difference towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine antibody response: systematic review

  • Mohammad Edwin Prasetyo ,
  • Gatot Soegiarto ,
  • Laksmi Wulandari ,


Introduction: There are several factors contributing to antibody response towards COVID-19 vaccination. Age, infection history, virus mutation, nutritional status, body mass index, gut microbiota, host polymorphism, and immune system have been accounted for variations in antibody development due to COVID-19 vaccination in several studies. Sex differences are also included in the list. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gender differences on antibody development after COVID-19 vaccination on general populations.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review based on the PRISMA statement. Searching for clinical trials was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOHost, and ProQuest using selected keywords. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to filter the study. Filtered studies were appraised using The Joanna-Briggs Institute tools for critical appraisal to determine the studies' eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were extracted for study and subjects' characteristics. Study outcomes were analyzed qualitatively and reported.

Results: Eight prospective cohort studies involving 3,381 subjects were included after searching and selection. Appraisal of studies found that studies were considered good enough for inclusion. We found that multiple studies reported higher COVID-19 vaccination antibodies in females compared to males. However, several studies doubted long-term differences due to antibody waning. These doubts were clarified by a study that stated that even though has been adjusted to various demographic factors, females showed significantly higher IgG levels up to 40 weeks. Another finding stated that antibody titer waned much softer in females compared to males.

Conclusion: Antibody towards COVID-19 vaccination was higher in females compared to males as initial response up to several weeks. However, long-term differences should be studied and investigated further.


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How to Cite

Prasetyo, M. E., Soegiarto, G. ., & Wulandari, L. . (2023). Impact of gender difference towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine antibody response: systematic review. Bali Medical Journal, 13(1), 95–100.




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Mohammad Edwin Prasetyo
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Gatot Soegiarto
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Laksmi Wulandari
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