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Effectiveness of Small Group Discussions (SGD) to Improve Learning Outcome and Critical Thinking in Medical Student: a Literature Review


The challenges in the health sector are getting tougher with the opening of the ASEAN Economic Community. Health workers do compete not only domestically but also abroad. To create Indonesian health workers who have good knowledge and skills, think critically, and can make good use of technology, the education process since undergraduate must be continuously improved. Various innovations have been made to form graduates who can compete in the future, including implementing SGD. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of SGD in improving student learning outcomes and critical thinking. The method in this study was a literature review, with 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. A review of several studies found that SGD can improve medical students' learning outcomes and critical thinking if the process is carried out effectively.


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  16. Heard J, Scoular C, Duckworth D, Ramalingam D, Teo I. Critical thinking: definition and structure. Australia Council for Educational Research. 2020. Available at:

How to Cite

Darmayani, I. G. A. S. (2023). Effectiveness of Small Group Discussions (SGD) to Improve Learning Outcome and Critical Thinking in Medical Student: a Literature Review. Bali Medical Journal, 12(1), 1179–1182.




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