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Psychometrics of social norm and beliefs on gender-based violence in Indonesia

  • Syiddatul Budury ,
  • Nunik Purwanti ,
  • Khamida ,
  • Diah Jerita Eka Sari ,


Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV) is an important issue, especially violence experienced by women in the household. Social norms and beliefs (SNB) held by a person in society also affect the occurrence of violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of SNB on the GBV scale in Indonesia.

Methods: Cross-sectional research was used in this study. A questionnaire on gender-based SNB was used to gather data. It had two domains—injunctive social norms and personal beliefs—each with three subscales: the husband's right to use violence, preserving family honor, and responding to sexual violence. By using a random sampling technique, data were obtained from 234 people consisting of 197 women and 37 men aged over 18 years. Data were analyzed using SmartPLS.

Results: The item which was strong on social norms with Cronbach's alpha 0.844 was protecting family honor. All items were above 0.5 so it can be stated that the gender-based SNB scale was valid and reliable to be used in measuring gender-based violence in Indonesia.

Conclusions: Psychometrics of SNB about GBV scale in the Indonesian version is valid and reliable.


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How to Cite

Syiddatul Budury, Nunik Purwanti, Khamida, & Sari, D. J. E. . (2023). Psychometrics of social norm and beliefs on gender-based violence in Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 12(2), 1302–1306.




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