Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer


It is natural for women to be pregnant but full of risks.  Food and diet greatly influence the gestation, it can worthful supporting the pregnancy or in the opposite it can also be harmful to and destroy the mother and/or the foetus growing inside her.  Healthy diet at the time of pregnancy is very important. The amount shall meet the requirement, the composition shall be balanced and it has to be safe from anything harmful for the mother or the foetus. Some suggestions such as cooking all food consumed, consuming more fresh food rather than processed and/or canned, avoiding alcohol and cigarette smoke and also limiting salt, simple sugar and seafood are very important to be followed.


  1. Oechsle A, Wensing M, Ullrich C, Bombana M. Health Knowledge of Lifestyle-Related Risks during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in Germany. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Nov 20;17(22). Available from:
  2. Lee A, Newton M, Radcliffe J, Belski R. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge and experiences of pregnant women and antenatal care clinicians: A mixed methods approach. Women Birth [Internet]. 2018 Aug;31(4):269–77. Available from:
  3. Agosti M, Tandoi F, Morlacchi L, Bossi A. Nutritional and metabolic programming during the first thousand days of life. Pediatr Med Chir [Internet]. 2017 Jun 28;39(2):157. Available from:
  4. Langley-Evans SC. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet [Internet]. 2015 Jan;28 Suppl 1:1–14. Available from:
  5. Panchenko PE, Lemaire M, Fneich S, Voisin S, Jouin M, Junien C, et al. [Epigenetics and Nutrition: maternal nutrition impacts on placental development and health of offspring]. Biol Aujourdhui [Internet]. 2015;209(2):175–87. Available from:
  6. Moreno Villares JM. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: the first 1000 days. Nutr Hosp [Internet]. 2016;33(Suppl 4):337. Available from:
  7. S. MZ, R. P, N. B. Nutrient Adequacy of Foods Consumed among Adult Population Residing in Urban Parts of Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. Int J Innov Res Dev [Internet]. 2017 Dec 30;6(12). Available from:
  8. Esen TAŞĞIN, Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Nutrition. Int J Innov Res Dev [Internet]. 2017;1(1):10–5. Available from:
  9. Pinatih GNI. Healthy food to support healthy life. Bali Med J [Internet]. 2020 May 1;9(1):380. Available from:
  10. Astley S, Finglas P. Nutrition and Health. In: Reference Module in Food Science [Internet]. Elsevier; 2016. Available from:
  11. Ditlevsen K, Sandøe P, Lassen J. Healthy food is nutritious, but organic food is healthy because it is pure: The negotiation of healthy food choices by Danish consumers of organic food. Food Qual Prefer [Internet]. 2019 Jan;71:46–53. Available from:
  12. de Seymour J V., Beck KL, Conlon CA. Nutrition in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med [Internet]. 2019 Aug;29(8):219–24. Available from:
  13. Omar A. Oyarzabal, Barbara B. VanRenterghem, The Meaning of Food Safety, Food Safety magazine, 2020, available at, downloaded on December 2020
  14. WHO, food safety, WHO, available at, 2020, downloaded December 2020
  15. Soma-Pillay P, Nelson-Piercy C, Tolppanen H, Mebazaa A. Physiological changes in pregnancy. Cardiovasc J Afr [Internet]. 2016 May 18;27(2):89–94. Available from:
  16. Melissa Conrad Stöppler, 2019, Stages of pregnancy: week by week, Women’s health, available from, downloaded at Desember 3, 2020
  17. Sandra Fikawati, Ahmad Syafiq, Khaula Karima, Gizi Ibu hamil, Gizi Ibu dan Bayi, PT Raja Grafindo Perkasa, Jakarta, 2015, pp. 1-18
  18. Kominiarek MA, Rajan P. Nutrition Recommendations in Pregnancy and Lactation. Med Clin North Am [Internet]. 2016 Nov;100(6):1199–215. Available from:
  19. Elango R, Ball RO. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2016;7(4):839S-44S. Available from:
  20. Butte NF, King JC. Energy requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Public Health Nutr [Internet]. 2005 Oct;8(7A):1010–27. Available from:
  21. Jardí C, Aparicio E, Bedmar C, Aranda N, Abajo S, March G, et al. Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Post-Partum. ECLIPSES Study. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Oct 14;11(10). Available from:
  22. Ortega RM. Dietary guidelines for pregnant women. Public Health Nutr [Internet]. 2001 Dec;4(6A):1343–6. Available from:
  23. Bédard A, Northstone K, Henderson AJ, Shaheen SO. Maternal intake of sugar during pregnancy and childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 2017;50(1). Available from:
  24. Inoue M, Tsuchihashi T, Hasuo Y, Ogawa M, Tominaga M, Arakawa K, et al. Salt Intake, Home Blood Pressure, and Perinatal Outcome in Pregnant Women. Circ J [Internet]. 2016 Sep 23;80(10):2165–72. Available from:
  25. Sundermann AC, Zhao S, Young CL, Lam L, Jones SH, Velez Edwards DR, et al. Alcohol Use in Pregnancy and Miscarriage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res [Internet]. 2019;43(8):1606–16. Available from:
  26. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Tee YYS, Bindels J, et al. Pre-Pregnancy BMI Influences the Association of Dietary Quality and Gestational Weight Gain: The SECOST Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2019;16(19). Available from:
  27. Fakir A., Petro G., Fawcus S., 2017, Mid-upper arm circumference: A surrogate for body mass index in pregnant women, SAMJ, 107 (7).
  28. Kpwou D.E., Poirot E., Berger J., Soms S.V., Laillou A., Belayneh S.N., Wieringa F.T., 2020, Maternal mid-upper arm circumference during pregnancy and linear growth among Cambodian infants during the first months of life
  29. Tang A.M., Chung M., Dong K., Terrin N., Edmonds A., Assefa N., Chetty T., Ramlal R., Christian P., West K., Janjua N., Wanke C, Deitchler M, Maalouf-Manasseh Z., 2016, Determining a Global Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Cutoff to Assess Malnutrition in Pregnant Women, Fanta III Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance, available from, downloaded at 20 januari 2022.
  30. Tran NT, Nguyen LT, Berde Y, Low YL, Tey SL, Huynh DTT. Maternal nutritional adequacy and gestational weight gain and their associations with birth outcomes among Vietnamese women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth [Internet]. 2019 Dec 4;19(1):468. Available from:
  31. Danielewicz H, Myszczyszyn G, Dębińska A, Myszkal A, Boznański A, Hirnle L. Diet in pregnancy-more than food. Eur J Pediatr [Internet]. 2017 Dec;176(12):1573–9. Available from:
  32. Zhou Y, Zhu X, Qin Y, Li Y, Zhang M, Liu W, et al. Association between total water intake and dietary intake of pregnant and breastfeeding women in China: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth [Internet]. 2019 May 15;19(1):172. Available from:
  33. Ershow AG, Brown LM, Cantor KP. Intake of tapwater and total water by pregnant and lactating women. Am J Public Health [Internet]. 1991 Mar;81(3):328–34. Available from:
  34. Zhang N, Du S, Yang Y, Ma G. Advances and gaps in recommendations for adequate water intake in China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2019;28(4):665–74. Available from:
  35. Banderali G, Martelli A, Landi M, Moretti F, Betti F, Radaelli G, et al. Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review. J Transl Med [Internet]. 2015 Oct 15;13:327. Available from:
  36. Abraham M, Alramadhan S, Iniguez C, Duijts L, Jaddoe VW V, Den Dekker HT, et al. A systematic review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal measurements with meta-analysis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2017;12(2):e0170946. Available from:
  37. Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Dadar M, Pivina L, Lindh U, Butnariu M, et al. Mercury exposure and its effects on fertility and pregnancy outcome. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol [Internet]. 2019 Oct;125(4):317–27. Available from:
  38. Grippo A, Zhang J, Chu L, Guo Y, Qiao L, Zhang J, et al. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Rev Environ Health [Internet]. 2018 Sep 25;33(3):247–64. Available from:
  39. Murcia M, Ballester F, Enning AM, Iñiguez C, Valvi D, Basterrechea M, et al. Prenatal mercury exposure and birth outcomes. Environ Res [Internet]. 2016 Nov;151:11–20. Available from:
  40. Rehman F, Shah M, Ali A, Ahmad I, Sarwar MT, Rapisarda AMC, et al. Unpasteurised milk consumption as a potential risk factor for toxoplasmosis in females with recurrent pregnancy loss. J Obstet Gynaecol [Internet]. 2020 Nov;40(8):1106–10. Available from:
  41. Gernand AD, Schulze KJ, Stewart CP, West KP, Christian P. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention. Nat Rev Endocrinol [Internet]. 2016 May;12(5):274–89. Available from:
  42. Balogun OO, da Silva Lopes K, Ota E, Takemoto Y, Rumbold A, Takegata M, et al. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2016 May 6; Available from:
  43. Biesalski HK, Tinz J. Multivitamin/mineral supplements: Rationale and safety. Nutrition [Internet]. 2017 Apr;36:60–6. Available from:
  44. Martínez García RM. Suplementos en gestación: últimas recomendaciones. Nutr Hosp [Internet]. 2016 Jul 12; Available from:
  45. Harvey NC, Holroyd C, Ntani G, Javaid K, Cooper P, Moon R, et al. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess [Internet]. 2014 Jul;18(45):1–190. Available from:

How to Cite

Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih. (2023). Healthy food for pregnant mother. Bali Medical Journal, 12(1), 218–221.




Search Panel

Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal