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The effectiveness of incentive spirometry exercise on pulmonary function in COVID-19 survivors: a randomized controlled trial study

  • Rosa Indah Kusumawardani ,
  • Damayanti Tinduh ,
  • Andriati ,
  • Dewi Poerwandari ,
  • Isnin Anang Marhana ,
  • Soenarnatalina Melaniani ,


Background: COVID-19 survivors often result in persistent symptoms, even months after being discharged, that lead to decreased lung function. Incentive spirometry is commonly used in pulmonary rehabilitation as it encourages the patient to take slow and deep inspiration through visual feedback. This study aimed to analyze the effects of incentive spirometry exercise on pulmonary function in COVID-19 survivors.

Method: Twenty COVID-19 survivors aged 18-59 were enrolled in the study and divided randomly into two groups; ten survivors in the experimental group that received incentive spirometry exercise and ten survivors in the control group that received diaphragmatic breathing exercise. Both exercises were performed five times daily, with ten repetitions each for four weeks. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured by a peak flow meter before and after the treatment in both groups. The data were analyzed statistically.

Result: There was a significant increase in pulmonary function in the experimental group (p=0.001) and control group (p=0.001). However, the two groups had no significant difference in pulmonary function (p=0.198). The incentive spirometry exercise shows a more significant effect on pulmonary function rather than diaphragmatic breathing.

Conclusion: Incentive spirometry exercise could be an alternative therapy to improve the pulmonary function of COVID-19 survivors.


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How to Cite

Kusumawardani, R. I., Tinduh, D., Andriati, Poerwandari, D., Marhana, I. A., & Melaniani, S. (2023). The effectiveness of incentive spirometry exercise on pulmonary function in COVID-19 survivors: a randomized controlled trial study. Bali Medical Journal, 12(1), 539–544.




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Rosa Indah Kusumawardani
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Damayanti Tinduh
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Dewi Poerwandari
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Isnin Anang Marhana
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Soenarnatalina Melaniani
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