Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Mechanism of oxidative stress in obesity

  • Gede Eka Rusdi Antara ,
  • Sri Maliawan ,


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are strongly linked to obesity and related diseases, particularly insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. ROS, on the other hand, are thought to be important in intracellular signaling, which may be required for insulin sensitivity. Many theories have been developed to explain this apparent paradox, which has helped us understand this important small molecule better. While many intracellular ROS production sites have been identified, mitochondrial-generated ROS remains a major contributor in most cell types. Some factors described in this review influence mitochondrial ROS generation. Furthermore, this review has demonstrated the need for a new sensitive approach to quantifying ROS.


  1. Bratic I, Trifunovic A. Mitochondrial energy metabolism and ageing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jun-Jul;1797(6-7):961-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.01.004. Epub 2010 Jan 11. PMID: 20064485.
  2. Sanchez JC, Converset V, Nolan A, Schmid G, Wang S, Heller M, Sennitt MV, Hochstrasser DF, Cawthorne MA. Effect of rosiglitazone on the differential expression of obesity and insulin resistance associated proteins in lep/lep mice. Proteomics. 2003 Aug;3(8):1500-20. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200300484. PMID: 12923776.
  3. Manna P, Jain SK. Obesity, Oxidative Stress, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, and the Associated Health Risks: Causes and Therapeutic Strategies. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2015 Dec;13(10):423-44. doi: 10.1089/met.2015.0095. PMID: 26569333; PMCID: PMC4808277.
  4. Liu BN, Liu XT, Liang ZH, Wang JH. Gut microbiota in obesity. World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Jul 7;27(25):3837-3850. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i25.3837. PMID: 34321848; PMCID: PMC8291023.
  5. Ritov VB, Menshikova EV, Azuma K, Wood R, Toledo FG, Goodpaster BH, Ruderman NB, Kelley DE. Deficiency of electron transport chain in human skeletal muscle mitochondria in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;298(1):E49-58. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00317.2009. Epub 2009 Nov 3. PMID: 19887598; PMCID: PMC2806111.
  6. Lee JV, Shah SA, Wellen KE. Obesity, cancer, and acetyl-CoA metabolism. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2013 Jun;10(1-2):e55-e61. doi: 10.1016/j.ddmec.2013.03.005. PMID: 23878588; PMCID: PMC3713850.
  7. Akl MG, Fawzy E, Deif M, Farouk A, Elshorbagy AK. Perturbed adipose tissue hydrogen peroxide metabolism in centrally obese men: Association with insulin resistance. PLoS One. 2017 May 18;12(5):e0177268. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177268. PMID: 28545081; PMCID: PMC5436683.
  8. Hariri N, Thibault L. High-fat diet-induced obesity in animal models. Nutr Res Rev. 2010 Dec;23(2):270-99. doi: 10.1017/S0954422410000168. Epub 2010 Oct 27. PMID: 20977819.
  9. Sikaris KA. The clinical biochemistry of obesity. Clin Biochem Rev. 2004 Aug;25(3):165-81. PMID: 18458706; PMCID: PMC1880830.
  10. Fuster JJ, Ouchi N, Gokce N, Walsh K. Obesity-Induced Changes in Adipose Tissue Microenvironment and Their Impact on Cardiovascular Disease. Circ Res. 2016 May 27;118(11):1786-807. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306885. PMID: 27230642; PMCID: PMC4887147.
  11. Mulyani WRW, Sanjiwani MID, Sandra, Prabawa IPY, Lestari AAW, Wihandani DM, Suastika K, Saraswati MR, Bhargah A, Manuaba IBAP. Chaperone-Based Therapeutic Target Innovation: Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020 Feb 27;13:559-568. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S232133. PMID: 32161482; PMCID: PMC7051252.
  12. Artha IMJR, Bhargah A, Dharmawan NK, Pande UW, Triyana KA, Mahariski PA, Yuwono J, Bhargah V, Prabawa IPY, Manuaba IBAP, Rina IK. High level of individual lipid profile and lipid ratio as a predictive marker of poor glycemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019 Jun 5;15:149-157. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S209830. PMID: 31239693; PMCID: PMC6560183.
  13. Izquierdo AG, Crujeiras AB, Casanueva FF, Carreira MC. Leptin, Obesity, and Leptin Resistance: Where Are We 25 Years Later? Nutrients. 2019 Nov 8;11(11):2704. doi: 10.3390/nu11112704. PMID: 31717265; PMCID: PMC6893721.
  14. Obradovic M, Sudar-Milovanovic E, Soskic S, Essack M, Arya S, Stewart AJ, Gojobori T, Isenovic ER. Leptin and Obesity: Role and Clinical Implication. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 May 18;12:585887. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.585887. PMID: 34084149; PMCID: PMC8167040.
  15. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 Feb;11(2):85-97. doi: 10.1038/nri2921. Epub 2011 Jan 21. PMID: 21252989; PMCID: PMC3518031.
  16. Eder K, Baffy N, Falus A, Fulop AK. The major inflammatory mediator interleukin-6 and obesity. Inflamm Res. 2009 Nov;58(11):727-36. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0060-4. Epub 2009 Jun 19. PMID: 19543691.
  17. Kern L, Mittenbühler MJ, Vesting AJ, Ostermann AL, Wunderlich CM, Wunderlich FT. Obesity-Induced TNFα and IL-6 Signaling: The Missing Link between Obesity and Inflammation-Driven Liver and Colorectal Cancers. Cancers (Basel). 2018 Dec 27;11(1):24. doi: 10.3390/cancers11010024. PMID: 30591653; PMCID: PMC6356226.
  18. Kim DK, Kim JW, Kim S, Gwon HC, Ryu JC, Huh JE, Choo JA, Choi Y, Rhee CH, Lee WR. Polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme gene is associated with circulating levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Nov;17(11):3242-7. doi: 10.1161/01.atv.17.11.3242. PMID: 9409318
  19. Nigro E, Scudiero O, Monaco ML, Palmieri A, Mazzarella G, Costagliola C, Bianco A, Daniele A. New insight into adiponectin role in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:658913. doi: 10.1155/2014/658913. Epub 2014 Jul 7. PMID: 25110685; PMCID: PMC4109424.
  20. Vasilenko MA, Kirienkova EV, Skuratovskaia DA, Zatolokin PA, Mironyuk NI, Litvinova LS. The role of production of adipsin and leptin in the development of insulin resistance in patients with abdominal obesity. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017 Jul;475(1):271-276. doi: 10.1134/S160767291704010X. Epub 2017 Sep 2. PMID: 28864895.
  21. Fonseca-Alaniz MH, Takada J, Alonso-Vale MI, Lima FB. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: from theory to practice. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007 Nov;83(5 Suppl):S192-203. doi: 10.2223/JPED.1709. Epub 2007 Nov 8. PMID: 17989837.
  22. Serra D, Mera P, Malandrino MI, Mir JF, Herrero L. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in obesity. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Jul 20;19(3):269-84. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.4875. Epub 2012 Oct 5. PMID: 22900819; PMCID: PMC3691913.
  23. Jung WS, Hwang H, Kim J, Park HY, Lim K. Comparison of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption of different exercises in normal weight obesity women. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2019 Jun 30;23(2):22-27. doi: 10.20463/jenb.2019.0013. PMID: 31337202; PMCID: PMC6651661.

How to Cite

Antara, G. E. R., & Maliawan, S. . (2022). Mechanism of oxidative stress in obesity. Bali Medical Journal, 11(3), 1930–1934.




Search Panel

Gede Eka Rusdi Antara
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Sri Maliawan
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal