Background: The incidence of herpes zoster appears to correlate inversely with the host's ability to mount a cellular immune response. The disease is characterized clinically by an acute rash with herpetiform blisters on the skin and mucous membranes. This case series presented the different clinical presentations of herpes zoster infection in three patients with different underlying diseases in the ophthalmic, trigeminal, cervical, and thoracic dermatomes.
Case Presentation: Three cases of herpes zoster were observed in this case series. The first case involved the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. The second case involved the cervical nerve, and the last case involved the thoracic nerve. All had undergone varicella infection in childhood and suffered from various states leading to immunosuppression. Tzanck smears were performed in all cases, which showed multinucleated giant cells. After treatment following the herpes zoster protocol, all cases healed without complications.
Conclusion: Reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus may occur spontaneously or when host immunity is weakened. Increasing age, a physical trauma (including dental procedures), psychological stress, malignancy, and immunocompromised conditions, including transplant recipients, pregnancy, and HIV infection, are predisposing factors for varicella-zoster virus reactivation.