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Controversial of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in pregnant mothers: a review

Abstract

Pregnant women are a population group at high risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Several cases have been reported, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and heart disease associated with COVID-19. In addition, it is also reported that pregnant women are also exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Most pregnant women with COVID-19 show mild symptoms. The placenta is usually an effective barrier to prevent the spread of infection from mother to fetus (vertical transmission). Certain pathogens can overcome this barrier, with effects that are sometimes detrimental to the development of pregnancy. Vertical infection of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus is possible, although there is no adequate evidence. It has been reported that in pregnant women with COVID-19, the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus is low. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. Although there is vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus, there are no reports of adverse effects in neonates.

The results of another study explained that in the case of pregnant women who were confirmed positive for COVID-19, there was an gene expression of the ACE2 receptor, N and S proteins from SARS-CoV-2 in the placenta. This study's results contradict the opinion that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the placenta that mediates viral entry can be ignored. Vertical transmission of SARS-C0V-2 during delivery can occur through close contact with infected cervical secretions or perineal tissue. It is more important to note that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is significantly elevated during pregnancy, which may contribute to susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. The selection of drugs that demonstrate superior maternal and fetal safety should be considered for pregnant women with COVID-19.

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David Tjahyadi. (2022). Controversial of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in pregnant mothers: a review. Bali Medical Journal, 11(3), 1967–1975. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i3.3759

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