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The difference of depression level in pregnant women based on the acceptance of pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study on pregnant women in Bontang, East Kalimantan

  • I Putu Satrya Wijaya ,
  • Titin Andri Wihastuti ,
  • I Wayan Arsana Wiyasa ,
  • Muhammad Chair Effendi ,


Background: Antenatal depression in pregnant women becomes less of a concern, leading to the worse condition of developing postpartum blues, ranging from moderate to severe degrees. In this study, antenatal depression was detected as a psychosocial impact on pregnant women, and their perspective on accepting pregnancy may alter due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional study design. A total of 257 pregnant women were enrolled in this study with a purposive sampling technique. Inclusion criteria: healthy pregnant women (over 18 years) from trimester I until trimester III. Antenatal depression was measured using a PHQ-9 scale questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for Windows.

Results: The prevalence of antenatal depression of 257 pregnant women was: 80.95% had mild depression, 14.12% had moderate depression, 4.69% had moderate or severe depression, and 0.79% had severe depression. The factor analysis results indicated that refusal of pregnancy had the highest correlation coefficient (coef. 0.586; p=0.000) on the incidence of antenatal depression compared to the history of abortion, parity, financial deficits, and conflicts with partners. During the assessment, pregnant women who reported refusal of their pregnancy felt that their pregnancy was a burden because it occurred at a challenging time.

Conclusion: Changes in psychosocial status through determinants of antenatal depression in pregnant women in East Kalimantan during the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to be the initiation of policy and antenatal depression screening formulation for each pregnant woman and mental health improvement during pregnancy.


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How to Cite

Wijaya, I. P. S. ., Wihastuti, T. A., Wiyasa, I. W. A. ., & Effendi, M. C. . (2023). The difference of depression level in pregnant women based on the acceptance of pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study on pregnant women in Bontang, East Kalimantan. Bali Medical Journal, 12(2), 1181–1186.




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I Putu Satrya Wijaya
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Titin Andri Wihastuti
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I Wayan Arsana Wiyasa
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Muhammad Chair Effendi
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