Introduction: According to WHO, the COVID-19 epidemic a public health emergency came to international attention in March 2020, and the pandemic quickly spread around the world. This disease is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which may enter human target cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This study aimed to assess the risk factors associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients in the Islamic Hospital of Jemursari, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study that used patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at the Islamic Hospital of Jemursari, Surabaya as a study subject. Patients of all ages who enter the hospital and were confirmed with a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result for SARS-CoV-2 were inclusion criteria of this study.
Results: We included 554 COVID-19-positive patients with the highest age at 26-35 years old as much as 26.72%, followed by the second highest at 36-45 years old at 20.86%. In addition, from all the patients in this study, it was found that the most patients were 281 male and 273 female. Characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, where type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most comorbid factor 88.89% in recovered COVID-19 patients and 11.11% in patients who have died. In addition, hypertension is also the second most comorbid 96.55% of Covid-19 patients.
Conclusion: Based on this study, the independent risk factors related to critical outcomes among COVID-19 cases include old age, males, diabetes mellitus, cardiac-related disease history, and the presence of two or more comorbidities. In future research, we suggest designing a unique multi-item scale system to prognosticate COVID-19 patients.