Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Patient preferences for surgery or non-surgery for the treatment of clavus and callus at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

  • Arisia Fadila ,
  • Iskandar Zulkarnain ,
  • Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan ,
  • Budi Utomo ,
  • Maylita Sari ,
  • Irmadita Citrashanty ,
  • Bagus Haryo Kusumoputro ,


Background: Clavus and callus are common hyperkeratotic lesions that can be very painful and affect the quality of life. The clinicians are faced with various factors affecting the resolution of the lesion, and no treatment has been considered ideal. Surgical has been preferable to conservative treatment but is still more likely to increase patients' desirability due to great discomfort. This study aims to evaluate the factors contributing to the resolution of callus and clavus.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was done on 25 medical records of patients who met the inclusion criteria. Factors contributing to the lesion resolution were identified and analyzed using the SPSS version 17 program.

Result: Among 25 (33.7%) patients recruited for the study, 13 were (52%) male and 12 (48%) female. The most common types of lesions were clavus (20 [80%]). In both cases, the distribution of lesion locations was mostly found in the lower extremities (20 [80%]). Excision was performed in 21 cases (84%), and 20 patients (80%) achieved resolution. Treatment modalities were found to be a factor that had a significant relation to the resolution of the lesion after receiving treatment (p = 0.003; Spearman test).

Conclusion: Treatment of callus and clavus has shown satisfactory results in our center. Excision was found to be the most preferred method, with 80% resolution observed during 1 month. The treatment choice was found to be significantly related to the resolution of the lesion after receiving therapy.


  1. Chiriac A, Podoleanu C, Năznean A, Stolnicu S. The role of pedobarography and therapeutic padding in the management of hyperkeratosis due to mechanical stress. J Interdiscip Med. 2019;4(1):29–32. DOI:10.2478/jim-2019-0003.
  2. Daria M, Sławomir L, Arkadiusz M. Plantar calluses - pathogenesis, risk factors, prophylaxis, methods of treatment. J Educ Heal Sport. 2018;8(8):302–12. Doi:10.5281/zenodo.1309012.
  3. Davys HJ, Turner DE, Helliwell PS, Conaghan PG, Emery P, Woodburn J. Debridement of plantar callosities in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44(2):207-210. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh435.
  4. Balanowski KR, Flynn LM. Effect of painful keratoses debridement on foot pain, balance and function in older adults. Gait Posture. 2005;22(4):302-307. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.10.006.
  5. Landorf KB, Morrow A, Spink MJ, et al. Effectiveness of scalpel debridement for painful plantar calluses in older people: a randomized trial. Trials. 2013;14:243. Published 2013 Aug 6. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-243.
  6. Garcia C, Soler F. Effect of debridement of plantar hyperkeratoses on gait in older people – an exploratory trial. Int J Gerontol. 2017;11(4):239–43. doi: 10.1016/j.ijge.2018.05.002.
  7. Güngör S, Bahçetepe N, Topal I. Removal of corns by punch incision: a retrospective analysis of 15 patients. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2014;80(1):41-43. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.125491.
  8. López-López D, Painceira-Villar R, Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo R, et al. Impact of the mechanical hyperkeratotic lesions and its association with quality of life: An observational case-control study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018;32(9):1549-1553. doi:10.1111/jdv.14970.
  9. Farndon LJ, Vernon W, Walters SJ, Dixon S, Bradburn M, Concannon M, et al. The effectiveness of salicylic acid plasters compared with "usual" scalpel debridement of corns: A randomised controlled trial. J Foot Ankle Res. 2013;6(1):1–8. doi:10.1186/1757-1146-6-40.
  10. Redmond A, Allen N, Vernon W. Effect of scalpel debridement on the pain associated with plantar hyperkeratosis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1999;89(10):515-519. doi:10.7547/87507315-89-10-515.
  11. Vanherpe L, Mitchell CL. Resection of metatarsal heads for painful and intractable plantar callosities. A report of ten years experience. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull. 1962;10:241-244.
  12. Garcia CA, Soler FC. Effectiveness of Three Scalpel Debridement Techniques on Painful Callus in Older People. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2020;110(4):Article_3. doi:10.7547/17-183.
  13. Stephenson J, Farndon L, Concannon M. Analysis of a trial assessing the long-term effectiveness of salicylic acid plasters compared with scalpel debridement in facilitating corn resolution in patients with multiple corns. J Dermatol. 2016;43(6):662-669. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.13203.
  14. Freeman DB. Corns and calluses resulting from mechanical hyperkeratosis. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(11):2277-2280.
  15. Woodburn J, Stableford Z, Helliwell PS. Preliminary investigation of debridement of plantar callosities in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2000;39(6):652-654. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/39.6.652.
  16. Lang LMG, Simmonite N, West SG, Day S. Salicylic acid in the treatment of corns. Foot. 1994;4(3):145–50. doi: 10.1016/0958-2592(94)90019-1.
  17. Firoz BF, Goldberg LH, Arnon O, Mamelak AJ. An analysis of pain and analgesia after Mohs micrographic surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(1):79-86. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2009.10.049.
  18. Masson-Meyers DS, Andrade TAM, Caetano GF, et al. Experimental models and methods for cutaneous wound healing assessment. Int J Exp Pathol. 2020;101(1-2):21-37. doi:10.1111/iep.12346.
  19. Iyengar S, Yeager DG, Cohen JL, Ozog DM. Update and Review of Bleeding Considerations in Dermatologic Surgery: Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets. Dermatol Surg. 2020;46(2):192-201. doi:10.1097/DSS.0000000000002266.
  20. Strazar AR, Leynes PG, Lalonde DH. Minimizing the pain of local anesthesia injection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132(3):675-684. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e31829ad1e2.
  21. Gostimir M, Hussain A. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Methods for Reducing Local Anesthetic Injection Pain Among Patients Undergoing Periocular Surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019;35(2):113-125. doi:10.1097/IOP.0000000000001209.
  22. Winsett F, Gleghorn K, Croley J, Wagner RF Jr. Managing pain associated with dermatologic procedures. Int J Dermatol. 2021;60(12):e480-e485. doi:10.1111/ijd.15540.
  23. Vangani AK, Juneja H. Efficacy of Homoeopathic Similium in Clavus Disease-A Case Study. 2019;03(07):96–9.

How to Cite

Fadila, A., Zulkarnain, I., Listiawan, M. Y., Utomo, B., Sari, M., Citrashanty, I., & Kusumoputro, B. H. (2022). Patient preferences for surgery or non-surgery for the treatment of clavus and callus at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 288–292.




Search Panel

Arisia Fadila
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Iskandar Zulkarnain
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Budi Utomo
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Maylita Sari
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Irmadita Citrashanty
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Bagus Haryo Kusumoputro
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal