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Change in ratio levels of KIM-1 / urine creatinine and increase serum creatinine levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients receiving tenofovir-based antiretroviral (ARV) combination therapy

  • I Dewa Gede Teguh Krisna Murti ,
  • I Ketut Agus Somia ,
  • I Gde Raka Widiana ,


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy refers to developing kidney disease associated with HIV infection. Tenofovir is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in urine is very specific for kidney injury. This study aimed to determine the changes in the ratio between the levels of KIM-1/urine creatinine and the increase in serum creatinine levels with the incidence of decreased kidney function in people with HIV.

Method: This was an observational-analytic study. Subjects were taken using consecutive sampling at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar in 2018. KIM-1 levels were measured by the ELISA method.

Results: This study involved 35 patients (21 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 34.89 ± 10.05 years old. The average levels of KIM-1/urine creatinine at 0 hours was 11.039 ± 12.175 ng/ml), KIM-1/urine creatinine at 12  was 12.382 ± 14.671 ng/ml), KIM-1/urine creatinine at 72 was 10.272 ± 11.843 ng/ml). There were no statistically significant differences in the ratio of hours 0 to 12 hours (p = 0.295), and between hours 0-72 (p = 0.413). But there was a significant difference in creatinine levels for 3 months with the initial mean serum (0.848 ± 0.201) and 3 months of evaluation (1.002 ± 0.198) (p = <0.001).

Conclusion: There was no difference in the ratio of changes in serum KIM-1/creatinine levels during the evaluation of 0, 12, and 72 hours. However, there was an increase in serum creatinine levels between the beginning and 3 months of evaluation.


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How to Cite

Murti, I. D. G. T. K., I Ketut Agus Somia, & Widiana, I. G. R. (2022). Change in ratio levels of KIM-1 / urine creatinine and increase serum creatinine levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients receiving tenofovir-based antiretroviral (ARV) combination therapy. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 503–507.




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I Dewa Gede Teguh Krisna Murti
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I Ketut Agus Somia
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I Gde Raka Widiana
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