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Exploring the role of the combination of propolis and vitamin D3 on VCAM-1 and Caspase-3 expression in preventing atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease rats

  • Darmawan Ismail ,
  • Bambang Purwanto ,
  • Brian Wasita ,
  • Supomo ,
  • Ketut Putu Yasa ,
  • Soetrisno ,


Background: Increased blood pressure that occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is influenced by the occurrence of thickening of blood vessels. This study evaluates the utilization of propolis which acts as an anti-inflammatory and vitamin D3 which plays a role in calcium-phosphate metabolism, that when combined are expected to prevent atherosclerosis.

Methods: This experimental research used a post-test only group design with a total of 24 male rats divided into 3 groups. Subjects were induced to develop CKD with unilateral ureteral obstruction. A combination of 50mg/kgBW of propolis and 0.126mcg/kgBW of vitamin D3 was given orally every morning in the intervention group. Hemodynamics and atherosclerosis status were observed using sonography until week 4. Inflammatory markers with vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Caspase-3 were evaluated weekly via plasma and target organ samples were immunohistochemically examined at the study’s end.

Results: Propolis and vitamin D3 significantly reduced blood pressure from 156 mmHg at the beginning of the study to 117mmHg at week 4 (p=0.000). Thickening of the aorta occurred in the control and intervention groups but the thickening in the control group (0.90mm) was statistically significantly (p=0.000) higher than the intervention group (0.30mm). There were decreased VCAM-1 and Caspase-3 levels in the intervention group compared to the control group, both in plasma and target organ levels

Conclusion: Utilization of propolis and vitamin D3 combined has a good effect on lowering inflammation, improving hemodynamics and preventing atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease rat models.


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How to Cite

Ismail, D., Purwanto, B., Wasita, B., Supomo, Yasa, K. P., & Soetrisno. (2022). Exploring the role of the combination of propolis and vitamin D3 on VCAM-1 and Caspase-3 expression in preventing atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease rats. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 160–165.