Introduction: Immobility is a factor directly related to pressure injury, that could progress to osteomyelitis, sepsis, decreased the quality of life and increased care costs. Therefore, this study is intended to review primary studies related to using the most effective device to prevent pressure injury in immobile patients, the duration for applying the device and tools for assessing pressure injury risk.
Method: This literature review was sourced from PubMed, ProQuest, and Willey Online Library databases. Studies that met the following criteria were included; experimental research using assistive devices as an intervention to prevent and assess pressure injury, published between 2014 and 2020, and the full-text article was available in English.
Result: The total number of articles found was 6,029 articles. Seven articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Assistive devices proven to prevent pressure injury included air mattresses, dressings/pads, and wheelchairs equipped with pillows/cushions. The duration of assistive devices was varied from minutes to weeks and assessment for pressure injury mostly used the Braden scale. Air mattresses were the most effective device to prevent pressure injury, with a press time of fewer than 10 minutes. Air mattresses were recommended devices in order to prevent pressure injury for immobile patients in clinical and community practices. In addition, developing air mattresses with advanced technologies is recommended for future work.
Conclusion: The widely used assistive devices to prevent pressure injury were air mattresses or viscoelastic foam mattresses made of silicone. Mattress usage time ranged from 5-7 minutes, while dressings usage could be up to four weeks. The Braden Scale was the leading choice for measuring pressure injury in bedridden patients.