Introduction: Stroke sufferers with weakness and paralysis of the lower extremities are at risk of experiencing balance disorders. It causes the risk of falling for stroke sufferers. The effects of falls can result in physical injuries such as bruises, abrasions, lacerations, and even fractures, head injuries, and bleeding. The effects of falling cause physical injury and increase the longer treatment time, so that it adds to the burden on the patient and family to pay for patient care. This literature review aims to identify the types of interventions that can increase the strength of the muscle' lower extremity to prevent falls in stroke sufferers.
Method: This study used JBI Scoping Review Method (Joanna Briggs Institute) from 2 database sources: Pubmed and Ebscohost. Publication 2015-2021. Keywords to search are stroke, fall risk, intervention, body balance, muscle strength.
Results: There were 1,446 articles found, and six articles were worthy of review. The interventions used are training motor imagery (MI) using structured, progressive circuit class therapy (SPCCT), taping techniques from gluteal taping and hip abductor taping using elastic bands, rehabilitation programs wearing regent suits (RS) based on electromyography (EMG), low-intensity mobility training, perturbation-based balance training (PBT) and a combined assessment of the weight-bearing ratio and the four square step test. The combination of MI with structured, SPCCT provides a greater therapeutic effect on gait and leg muscle strength in stroke patients. Gluteal taping and hip abductor taping techniques using elastic bands improve functional performance in individuals with chronic stroke. A rehabilitation program that wears an RS and EMG were more effective than usual treatment in increasing the EMG pattern during movement and activities of daily living. A PBT can help prevent falls in everyday life after stroke, and the weight-bearing ratio and four square step tests can predict falls in stroke patients more precisely than the berg balance scale.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the exercises, techniques and programs performed can increase lower extremity muscle strength, improve walking balance and reduce the risk of falls in stroke patients. These interventions require different times and tools according to the training carried out.