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Factors of the elderly being exposed to COVID-19: a scoping review


Background: The world today and public health problems ahead of the pandemic respiratory syndrome or commonly called COVID-19. It is important to identify the risk, especially for mortality understanding, nutrition status of elderly and dementia. This study literature review aims to understand the risk factors of the elderly when pandemic COVID-19.

Method: This literature uses the scoping review method and searches PubMed, Proquest, and Sciencedirect. Criteria for determining the literature review done using the words “Risk OR Factors OR Elderly Get OR Covid-19”. The study's inclusion criteria are articles for the last two years is 2020-2021, and the type of article includes a suitable journal, first select the title, abstract, journal content, and cohort study, chi-square cross-sectional, and case-control.

Result: After these inclusion criteria based on the categories and filtered, the database is used in the journal is five literature reviews. The risk factors for the elderly exposed to COVID-19 include problems understanding COVID-19, nutritional status of problems, dementia experienced by the elderly. 

Conclusion: Two risk factors are often faced by the elderly during the COVID pandemic, namely problems with understanding and dementia in the elderly.


  1. Zuo P, Tong S, Yan Q, Cheng L, Li Y, Song K, et al. Decreased prealbumin level is associated with increased risk for mortality in elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Nutrition. 2020/07/03. 2020;78:110930. Available from:
  2. Leung C. Risk factors for predicting mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19: A review of clinical data in China. Mech Ageing Dev. 2020/04/27. 2020;188:111255. Available from:
  3. Sun Z, Yang B, Zhang R, Cheng X. Influencing Factors of Understanding COVID-19 Risks and Coping Behaviors among the Elderly Population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(16):5889. Available from:
  4. Araújo MPD, Nunes VM de A, Costa L de A, Souza TA de, Torres G de V, Nobre TTX. Health conditions of potential risk for severe Covid-19 in institutionalized elderly people. PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0245432–e0245432. Available from:
  5. Reyes-Bueno JA, Mena-Vázquez N, Ojea-Ortega T, Gonzalez-Sotomayor MM, Cabezudo-Garcia P, Ciano-Petersen NL, et al. Case fatality of COVID-19 in patients with neurodegenerative dementia. Neurol (English Ed. 2020;35(9):639–45. Available from:
  6. Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien K, Colquhoun H, Kastner M, et al. A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016;16:15. Available from:
  7. Sudargo, T., Kusmayanti, N. A. and Hidayati NL. Deficiency Of Iodine, iron, and Inteligence. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2018.
  8. Nugroho W. Communication In Gerontic Nursing. Jakarta: EGC; 2009.

How to Cite

Indah, R. A., & Huriah, T. (2021). Factors of the elderly being exposed to COVID-19: a scoping review. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1253–1256.




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