Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Nursing 'new normal' education: an investigation of barriers and strategies of curriculum planning to meet national standards


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has a major effect on nursing education in Indonesia, it needs for adaptation of the curriculum to achieve competent nursing graduates meet national and international standards. The aim of this study is to explore the barriers and strategies of nursing education of private institutions, in curriculum planning in the new normal era during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in five nursing study programs in East Java. Data collection was carried out by in-depth interviews, observations, documentation studies of 25 participants, with the criteria of lecturers being actively involved in curriculum planning based on Indonesian national standards. The data used purposive sampling and snowball sampling. The data validity is carried out with four criteria: credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Data analysis was carried out using the model approach of Miles, Huberman & Saldana. Data records from interviews, observations and documentation then carried out data selection, reducing, focusing on data findings (data condensation).

Results: The study found five themes: (1) barriers from human resources, (2) barriers during the curriculum planning process, (3) barriers for Nursing Study Program lecturers in obtaining information sources related to Indonesian Qualification framework-based curriculum planning, (4) strengthen the pro-active leadership of study programs; (5) foster dynamic communication between curriculum teams.

Conclusion: The results showed, in pandemic crisis COVID-19, the need for a curriculum planning workshop with clear technical guidelines in producing an effective, efficient, adaptable nursing curriculum, the effective one of planning has high potential in producing high quality nursing graduates.


  1. Holmgren J. Global nursing : Educating future nurses for tomorrow ’ s nursing care needs. 2017;37(3):172–4.
  2. Roberts MS, Gapp DK, Burns-coral M, Greaves VD, Williams ML. Advancing BSNs by 2020 : Innovative Educational Progression for Success. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2020;00(0):1–2.
  3. Aston L, Mallik M, Day C, Fraser D. An exploration into the role of the teacher / lecturer in practice : findings from a case study in adult nursing. Nurse Educ Today. 2000;20:178–88.
  4. López-Pereira A, Arango-Bayer G. Professional values of nurse lecturers at three universities in Colombia. Nurs Ethics. 2017;24(2):198–208.
  5. Price L, Hastie L, Duffy K, Ness V, Mccallum J. Supporting students in clinical practice : Pre-registration nursing students ’ views on the role of the lecturer. Nurse Educ Today . 2011;31(8):780–4. Available from:
  6. Arifin I, Juharyanto, Mustiningsih, Taufiq A. Islamic Crash Course as a Leadership Strategy of School Principals in Strengthening School Organizational Culture. SAGE Open. 2018;(July-September):1–10.
  7. Krissandi ADS, Rusmawan R. Kendala Guru Sekolah Dasar Dalam Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. J Cakrawala Pendidik. 2015;3(3):457–67.
  8. Achampong EK. Assessing the Current Curriculum of the Nursing and Midwifery Informatics Course at All Nursing and Midwifery Institutions in Ghana. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2017;4(3):238212051770689.
  9. Edwards D, Anstey S, Kelly D, Hopkinson J. An innovation in curriculum content and delivery of cancer education within undergraduate nurse training in the UK. What impact does this have on the knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care? Eur J Oncol Nurs . 2016;21:8–16. Available from:
  10. Rechel B, Mckee M, Haas M, Marchildon GP, Bousquet F, Blümel M, et al. Public reporting on quality , waiting times and patient experience in 11 high-income countries ?. Health Policy (New York) . 2016;120(4):377–83. Available from:
  11. Parson L, Childs B, Elzie P. Using Competency-Based Curriculum Design to Create a Health Professions Education Certificate Program that Meets the Needs of Students, Administrators, Faculty, and Patients. Heal Prof Educ . 2018; Available from:
  12. Haryanti F, Kamil H, Ibrahim K, Hadi M, Nuraini T, Suryani, et al. Kurikulum Inti Pendidikan Ners Indonesia. Haryanti F, Kamil H, Ibrahim K, Hadi M, editors. Jakarta: Asosiasi Institusi Pendidikan Ners Indonesia (AIPNI); 2016. 1–292 p.
  13. El-Awaisi A, Anderson E, Barr H, Wilby KJ, Wilbur K, Bainbridge L. Important steps for introducing interprofessional education into health professional education. J Taibah Univ Med Sci . 2016;11(6):546–51. Available from:
  14. Febriana R. Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Kompetensi Dengan Pendekatan Dunia Kerja Pada Program D3 Tata Boga. J Cakrawala Pendidikan. 2017;36(1):148–55.
  15. Muraraneza C, Mtshali GN. Implementation of competency based curriculum in pre-service nursing education: Middle range theory. Int J Africa Nurs Sci. 2018;8(February):53–8.
  16. Jainurakhma J, Soleh M, Dewi NLDAS, Astuti IY. Lived experience of nurses in caring for persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural areas of East Java Indonesia: A phenomenological study. Belitung Nurs J. 2020;6(2):47–51.
  17. Jainurakhma J, Damayanti D, V.M. No, Supriadi E, Sinaga R, Meinarisa, et al. Caring Perawat Gawat Darurat. Yayasan Kita Menulis; 2021. 248 p.
  18. Ozan YD, Okumus H, Lash AA. Implementation of Watson ’ s Theory of Human Caring : A Case Study. Int J Caring Sci. 2015;8(1):25–35.
  19. Watson J, Smith MC. Caring science and the science of unitary human beings : a trans-theoretical discourse for nursing knowledge development. Nurs Theory Concept Dev or Anal. 2002;37(5).
  20. Wijaya R, Lukman M, Yadewani D. The Impact oF COVID19 Pandemics on the Utilization of e Learning. Dimensi. 2020;9(2).
  21. Siahaan M. Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Terhadap Dunia Pendidikan. J Kaji Ilm. 2020;1(1):73–80.
  22. Calma KRB, Halcomb E, Stephens M. The impact of curriculum on nursing students ’ attitudes , perceptions and preparedness to work in primary health care : An integrative review. Nurse Educ Pract . 2019;39(July):1–10. Available from:
  23. Maniago JD, Albougami AS, Orte CJS. Stakeholders Quality Framework of Nursing Education : A Brief Report. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2020;(May).
  24. AIPViKI. Kurikulum Inti Diploma III Keperawatan Update-2018. In Bidang Pendidikan dan Pelatihan AIPViKI; 2018.
  25. Arslan H, Gokce G. Do nurse educators use evidence in nursing education ? A qualitative study. J Prof Nurs . 2020;(April):0–1. Available from:
  26. Solikhah I, Budiharso T. Investigating the learning outcomes of an INQF-based english language teaching curriculum in Indonesia. J Soc Stud Educ Res. 2019;10(4):153–75.
  27. Yin RK. Qualitative research From start to Finish. Vol. XXXIII, Uma ética para quantos? The Guilford Press; 2011.
  28. Miles MB, Huberman AM, Saldana J. Qualitative Data Analysis, A Methods Sourcebook, Edition 3. USA: Sage Publications.; 2014.
  29. Holmes C, Lindsay D. “ Do You Want Fries With That ?”: The McDonaldization of University Education — Some Critical Reflections on Nursing Higher Education. 2018;
  30. Beauvais AM, Kazer MW, Aronson B, Conlon SE, Forte P, Fries KS, et al. After the Gap Analysis : Education and Practice Changes to Prepare Nurses of the Future. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2017;38(October):250–4.
  31. Gore T, Singh OB. Development of a Foundations of Simulation Teaching Course for Nurse Educators. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2018;00(0):1–2.
  32. Purnawinadi IG. Dampak pandemi covid-19 pada Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa Keperawatan Tahap Akademik. J Sk Keperawatan. 2021;7(1):63–9.
  33. Sudarsana IK, dkk. COVID-19: Perspektif Pendidikan. Denpasar: Yayasan Kita Menulis; 2020. 220 p.
  34. Fanani Q, Jainurakhma J. Kemampuan Penyesuaian Diri Mahasiswa Terhadap Pembelajaran Daring Di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19. J KomtekInfo. 2020;7(4):285–92.
  35. Ruchiwit M, Patchotasingh M, Phanphairoj K. Strategies for Creating Innovators in Thailand’s Higher Education. J Med Educ Curric Dev . 2019;6:238212051986307. Available from:
  36. Hossein KM, Yazdani S, Ahmady S, et al. Leadership and management curriculum planning for Iranian general practitioners. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2015;3(April 2018):159–65.
  37. Saunders C, Palesy D, Lewis J. Systematic review and conceptual framework for health literacy training in health professions education. Heal Prof Educ . 2018; Available from:
  38. Lewis C, Takahashi A. Facilitating curriculum reforms through lesson study. Int J Lesson Learn Stud. 2013;2(3):207–17.
  39. Saadun SJ, Lewis J. Revisit the Curriculum Components for the Preparation of Health Services Managers. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci . 2014;129:257–65. Available from:
  40. Neville-norton M, Cantwell S. Curriculum Mapping in Nursing Education : A Case Study for Collaborative Curriculum Design and Program Quality Assurance. Teach Learn Nurs . 2019;14(2):88–93. Available from:
  41. Ha DT, Nuntaboot K. Factors Influencing Competency Development of Nurses As Perceived By Stakeholders in Vietnam. Belitung Nurs J. 2020;6(4):103–10.
  42. Retnawati H. Hambatan Guru Matematika Sekolah Menengah Pertama Dalam Menerapkan Kurikulum Baru. J Cakrawala Pendidikan. 2016;3(3):390–403.
  43. Maryati, Prasetyo ZK, Wilujeng I, Sumintono B. Measuring teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge using many-facet rasch model. Cakrawala Pendidikan. 2019;38(3):452–64.
  44. Harrison H, Birks M, Franklin R, Mills J. determine practice readiness of newly graduated registered nurses. Collegian. 2019; Available from:
  45. Scrymgeour GC, Smith L, Paton D. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster : Often an Invisible Role Within a Highly Visible Event. 2016;
  46. Steward IA. The importance of professional education preparation for nursing faculty. Importance Prof Educ Prep Nurs Fac . 2016; Available from:
  47. Wahyudin D. A Model of Education District Curriculum Management: Indonesia Case. Int J Curr Adv Res. 2019;6(June):5176–83.
  48. Ansani; Baking A. Manajemen Kepala Madrasah Dalam Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Di Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kolaka Kabupaten Kolaka. J Teknol Pendidik Madrasah . 2019;2(2):127–45. Available from:
  49. Goodman B, Goodman B. The need for a ’ sustainability curriculum ’ in nurse education. Nurse Education Today. 2019;31(8):733–7. Available from:
  50. Rahmat, Wahyudin D. Penguatan Peran Kepemimpinan Kurikulum (Curriculum Leadership) Wakil Kepala Sekolah dalam Mengimplementasikan Kepemimpinan Pembelajaran (Instructional Leadership). J Inov Kurikulum. 2020;17(2):77–86. Available from:
  51. Panduragan SL, Abdullah N, Hassan H, Mat S. Level of confidence among nursing students in the clinical setting. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci. 2011;18:404–7.
  52. Tindage J. Pentingnya Komunikasi dalam Meningkatkan Semangat Kerja Karyawan pada Redaksi Papua Barat Post Sorong di Kota Sorong. J Ekon Peluang. 2020;XIV:223–7.
  53. Lopez CJ, Mason ECM. School Counselors as Curricular Leaders : A Content Analysis of ASCA Lesson Plans. Prof Sch Couns. 2018;21:1–12.
  54. Abdurrahman. Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia ( KBK-KKNI ) ( Model Rekonstruksi MADIN ). Ta’allum. 2014;2(1):1–16.
  55. Arslan S, Dinç L. Nursing students’ perceptions of faculty members’ ethical/unethical attitudes. Nurs Ethics. 2017;24(7):789–801.
  56. Desimone BB. Curriculum Redesign to Build the Moral Courage Values of Accelerated Bachelor’s Degree Nursing Students. SAGE Open Nurs. 2019;5:1–10.
  57. Paminto J, Rosiana T, Budisantoso HT. Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 di Sekolah Pesantren dengan Sistem Boarding School. Indonesian Journal of Curriculum. 2018;6(1):41–52.

How to Cite

Jainurakhma, J., Imron, A., Ulfatin, N., Arifin, I., Zaenal, Z., & Sekarini, S. (2021). Nursing ’new normal’ education: an investigation of barriers and strategies of curriculum planning to meet national standards. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1152–1160.