Objective: Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered comparedÂ with other non-traumatic acute abdomens. Sanglah General Hospital recorded there were 470Â cases of acute appendicitis in the year 2006. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of aÂ single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in open appendectomy ofÂ non-perforated acute appendicitis.
Method: A single blind randomized controlled trial in 110 nonperforatedÂ acute appendicitis patients that underwent open appendectomy at Sanglah General HospitalÂ emergency operating theatre from April to June 2012 was conducted. Cefazolin 1 g andÂ Metronidazole 500 mg were administered intravenously prior operation. Samples were divided into
two groups by permuted block. Following operation, the single-dose group was administered placebo,Â while the multiple-dose group received two additional doses of antibiotics. Surgical site infectionÂ (SSI) of both groups in every week for one month was evaluated. Surgical site infection was
determined based on Hultonâ€™s criteria. Risk of surgical site infection of both groups was analyzedÂ with Relative Risk (chi-square).
Results: In the single-dose group 49.1% were males and 50.9% wereÂ females with a mean age of 28.71 years old, and in the multiple-dose group 40% were males and 60%
were females with a mean age of 29.07 years old. Risk of SSI in single-dose group was 7.3% andÂ multiple-dose group was 5.5% with Relative Risk (RR) = 1.33% (95% CI RR: 0.31-5.68, p= 1.000).
Conclusion: There is no difference of SSI risk between single and multiple-dose antibioticÂ prophylaxisinopen appendectomy of non-perforated acute appendicitis.