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Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model as a concept for improving the contribution of general practitioners in Indonesia for male infertility management

  • Dicky Moch Rizal ,


Specialist distribution in Indonesia was not equally between urban and rural areas. In this condition, the role of general practitioners is critical as a front guard for handling patients with infertility problems, especially male infertility, before making a referral to an andrologist. There has been no guidance for general practitioners in Indonesia to contribute to managing male infertility until now. We identify male infertility problems and the level of competence of general practitioners in providing interventions based on “Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia (SKDI)” or Standard of Competencies Indonesian Doctors. Furthermore, a guideline, namely the Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model, is made by conducting a literature review based on male infertility problems and the level of competency that have been identified before. ANDRO model is consists of major and minor aspects of male infertility make a star form. The significant elements including the risk of a reproductive problem, sexual dysfunction, abnormal sperm, presence of testicular mass, and small testicular volume. While the minor aspects including physical activity, body mass index management, metabolic problem management, lifestyle modification, and stress management. ANDRO model offers the opportunity for general practitioners to contribute to a couple who wants to have a baby by treating or improving factors related to male infertility.


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How to Cite

Rizal, D. M. (2021). Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model as a concept for improving the contribution of general practitioners in Indonesia for male infertility management. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 912–917.




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