Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Japanese Encephalitis Incidence and Its Association with The Length of Stay and Long-term Outcome in 2015, Bali-Indonesia

Abstract

Background: Japanese Encephalitis (JE) had high fatality rate and gave permanent sequelae in more than quarter children affected. Since 1975, JE surveillance in animals found that JE infection had spread throughout the Indonesia regions. Bali is endemic for JE infection, with well enhanced surveillance, and recruited as pilot project area for JE vaccination in Indonesia. Objectives: to assess JE incidence and to investigate JE association with the burden of the disease, the length of stay and severe neurological outcome in Bali province. Methods: We applied clinical case definition of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and performed laboratory diagnostic criteria using serum IgM capture ELISA. Results: During the surveillance period, 282 cases were met the AES case definition, 50 (17.7%) were positive for JE infection, resulting in an annual incidence of 1.2/100 000 population. As many as 46 (92%) were under 15 years old. One (0.02%) subject died, while 18 (36%) survivors had a permanent disability due to brain atrophy or degeneration. Most subjects were admitted during the rainy season, but cases were reported throughout the year. The median length of illness was 10 days for subjects with non-JE encephalitis, while median length of illness 19 days for subjects with JE.  The majority (88%) of JE patients were found to live far from a pigsty and mostly living in town. None of them had a history of JE vaccination. Conclusions: The majority of JE cases in Bali was children under 15 years old, and not living in an area near a pigsty. This pattern similar with the previous study, since there is no immunization program available present. Consideration should be given to JE vaccination policy in the near future.

References

  1. WHO. Weekly epidemiological record: Japanese encephalitis vaccines: WHO position paper. 2015; 90:69-88.
  2. WHO. World health report (for years 2000-2004). Cited 2015 May 1. Available from http://www.who.int/whr/en.
  3. United Nations. The United Nations urbanization prospects: the 2005 revisions. POP/DB/WUP/Rev.2005/1/F1. New York: United Nations;2005.
  4. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Pedoman pengendalian Japanese encephalitis. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia;2013.
  5. Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K. Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerg Inf Dis. 2009;15:1-7.
  6. Nittatpatana N, Peres AD, Gouilh MA, Souris M, Barbazan P, Yoksan S, et al. Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand. Emerg Inf Dis. 2008;14:1762-5.
  7. Kakkar M, Dhole T, Rogawski ET, Chaturvedi S. Public Health laboratory surveillance and diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis: time to revisit. Indian Peds. 2016;53: 33-5.
  8. Chakraborty D, Banerjee S, Maji D, Kanti-Dey T, Moudal P, Basu M. A descriptive study of Japanese encephalitis in West Bengal India, based on surveillance data: changing pattern observed in recent years. Sch J App Med Sci. 2015;3:320-8
  9. Amuradha SK, Surekha YA, Sathyanarayan MS, Suresh S, Satish P, Mariraj J, et al. Epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis in Bellary, Karnataka, India. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2:691-5.
  10. Lee DW, Choe YJ, Kim JH, Song KM, Cho H, Bae G, et al. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in South Korea, 2007-2010. Int J Inf Dis. 2012;16:e448-52.
  11. Yun S, Lee Y. Japanese encephalitis: the virus and vaccines. Human Vac Immu. 2014;10:263-79.
  12. CDC. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. Washington: recommendation of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; 2009(updated 2009 July 2014; cited 2015 March 4). Available from: http//www.cdc.gov.

How to Cite

Suwarba, I. G. N. M., Andayani, A. R., Sukrata, I. W., & Sunetra, W. (2016). Japanese Encephalitis Incidence and Its Association with The Length of Stay and Long-term Outcome in 2015, Bali-Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 5(1), 135–137. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v5i1.264

HTML
0

Total
4

Share

Search Panel

I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Ayu Rai Andayani
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Wayan Sukrata
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Wira Sunetra
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal