Bladder stones affecting children, especially in low-resource countries. Dietary, environmental, genetic inheritance, and socio-economic factors affecting the composition of bladder stones. Even though the etiology of bladder stones is unknown, recent research has identified many risk factors that may assist this pathological condition. Even though cystolithotripsy has now become the standard of care, many other approaches are indicated in specific conditions. Surgeons should diagnose and investigate the etiology of the diseases properly, thus a surgical approach is only used when it is needed. Therefore, this study aims to review bladder stones in children based on current literature to refer to other researchers and clinicians.