Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Nasal rinse and gargling as an effort in preventing COVID-19 infection with Islamic approach – a literature review

Abstract

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the general public must comply with health protocols and adopt new habits as this disease spreads through droplets and enters the respiratory tract through the nose and mouth. Meanwhile, water penetration into the nasal cavity (istinsyaq) and out (istintsar) during ablution corresponds to the nasal rinse and gargling methods, which prevents the mechanical and chemical attachment of viruses. This article discusses the role of Islamic-based nasal rinse and gargling in the prevention of COVID-19 infection.

Various solutions such as plain water, saline, povidone-iodine, and antiseptics have chemical effects. Gargling and nasal rinse mechanically and chemically wash the mucosal surface in the mouth and nose to prevent the attachment of virus and other pathogens. Mechanically, the difference in concentration causes water to move outside the cell by osmosis, reducing mucus secretion and releasing the virus. Meanwhile, a chemical mechanism occurs when the free iodine in povidone-iodine oxidizes fatty acids and damages the virus cell walls and the respiratory chain of cytosolic enzymes, hence preventing inflammation of the host cell. However, the choice of liquid type, concentration, duration, and frequency of use still need to be considered to prevent side effects.

References

  1. Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(4):281–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6
  2. WHO. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2021. p. 1–2.
  3. Khalil I, Barma P. Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) mouth gargle/nasal spray may be the simplest and cost effective therapeutic antidote for COVID-19 Frontier. Arch Community Med Public Heal. 2020;6(2):138–41.
  4. Sungnak W, Huang N, Bécavin C, Berg M, Queen R, Litvinukova M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes. Nat Med. 2020;26(5):681–7.
  5. Al-magribi A bin M. Kitab Fadhail A’mal. Darul haq. 2011;1.
  6. Farrell NF, Klatt-Cromwell C, Schneider JS. Benefits and Safety of Nasal Saline Irrigations in a Pandemic—Washing COVID-19 Away. JAMA Otolaryngol Neck Surg. 2020;146(9):787. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2020.1622
  7. Ramli RR, Mohamad I, Ab Wahab MS, Naing NN, Wan Din WS. A pilot study on the efficacy of nasal rinsing during ablution in reducing acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) among male Hajj pilgrims. J Taibah Univ Med Sci. 2018;13(4):364–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.04.004
  8. Casale M, Rinaldi V, Sabatino L, Moffa A, Ciccozzi M. Could nasal irrigation and oral rinse reduce the risk for COVID-19 infection? Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2020;34:205873842094175. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058738420941757
  9. Vergara-Buenaventura A, Castro-Ruiz C. Use of mouthwashes against COVID-19 in dentistry. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;58(8):924–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2020.08.016
  10. Stathis C, Victoria N, Loomis K, Nguyen SA, Eggers M, Septimus E, et al. Review of the use of nasal and oral antiseptics during a global pandemic. Future Microbiol. 2021;16(2):119–30. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2020-0286
  11. M Sabra SM. Ablution (Wudu) health benefits (HBs) through comparison nasal–cavity (NC) bacterial–content (BC) with gold–standard (GS) at high–altitude (HA) area, Taif, KSA. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(6). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/jabb.2018.05.00160
  12. Siddiqui R, Khamis M, Ibrahim T, Khan NA. SARS-CoV-2: The Increasing Importance of Water Filtration against Highly Pathogenic Microbes. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020;11(17):2482–4. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00468
  13. Singh V, Singh S, Sharma N, Singh U, Singh T, Mangal D. Nasopharyngeal wash in preventing and treating upper respiratory tract infections: Could it prevent COVID-19? Lung India. 2020;37(3):246. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_241_20
  14. TR TH, Fadhlia, Damayanti. Nasal Saline Irrigation for Healty Nose to Mucociliar Clearence : Perspective In Medical Study and Al-Qur’an. In: The 1st Syiah Kuala International Conference on Medical and Health Sciences. Banda Aceh: Universitas Syiah Kuala; 2017. p. 216–20.
  15. Edwards DA, Man JC, Brand P, Katstra JP, Sommerer K, Stone HA, et al. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(50):17383–8.
  16. De Servi B, Meloni M, Saaid A, Culig J. In vitro comparison of safety and efficacy of diluted isotonic seawater and electrodialyzed seawater for nasal hygiene. Med Devices (Auckl). 2020;13:391–8.
  17. Rosati P, Giordano U, Concato C. Hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling as an inexpensive practical adjunctive weapon to combat asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. A case report. Trends Med. 2020;20(6). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15761/tim.1000249
  18. Ramalingam S, Graham C, Dove J, Morrice L, Sheikh A. Hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling should be considered as a treatment option for COVID-19. J Glob Health. 2020;10(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010332
  19. Santos-López M, Jaque D, Fuentes E, González-Quintanilla D. Mouthwashes and Nasal Sprays as a Way to Prevent the Spread of SARS-CoV-2. Int J Odontostomatol. 2020;14(4):513–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0718-381x2020000400513
  20. Kariwa H, Fujii N, Takashima I. Inactivation of SARS Coronavirus by Means of Povidone-Iodine, Physical Conditions and Chemical Reagents. Dermatology. 2006;212(1):119–23. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000089211
  21. Pelletier JS, Tessema B, Westover J, Frank S, Brown SM, Capriotti JA. Efficacy of Povidone-Iodine Nasal And Oral Antiseptic Preparations Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [Internet]. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 2020. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.25.20110239
  22. Hassandarvish P, Tiong V, Mohamed NA, Arumugam H, Ananthanarayanan A, Qasuri M, et al. In vitro virucidal activity of povidone iodine gargle and mouthwash against SARS-CoV-2: implications for dental practice. Br Dent J. 2020; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-2402-0
  23. Eggers M, Eickmann M, Zorn J. Rapid and Effective Virucidal Activity of Povidone-Iodine Products Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA). Infect Dis Ther. 2015;4(4):491–501. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-015-0091-9
  24. Kirk-Bayley J, Challacombe S, Sunkaraneni V, Combes J. The Use of Povidone Iodine Nasal Spray and Mouthwash During the Current COVID-19 Pandemic May Protect Healthcare Workers and Reduce Cross Infection. SSRN Electron J. 2020; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3563092
  25. de Toledo Telles-Araujo G, Caminha RDG, Kallás MS, Sipahi AM, da Silva Santos PS. Potential mouth rinses and nasal sprays that reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load: What we know so far? Clinics. 2020;75. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2020/e2328
  26. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246–51. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022
  27. Pratelli A, Colao V. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus. J Gen Virol. 2015;96(2):331–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.070870-0

How to Cite

Yanti, B., Maulana, I., Sofiana, D., Sufani, L., & Jannah, N. (2021). Nasal rinse and gargling as an effort in preventing COVID-19 infection with Islamic approach – a literature review. Bali Medical Journal, 10(2), 503–506. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v10i2.2397

HTML
18

Total
33

Share