Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The relationship between CT scan and incidence of intrathoracic thymoma metastases in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta

  • Sekar Mayang Octarina Nikita ,
  • Widiastuti Widiastuti ,
  • Ana Rima ,
  • Prasetyo Sarwono ,
  • Hari Wujoso ,
  • Ari Rosati ,


Background: Intrathoracic metastases are the most common form of metastasis in thymoma patients that influences the patient's life expectancy. Observing the tumor profile based on CT scan images is one of the ways that can be used to predict the presence of intrathoracic metastases in thymoma patients. However, there are not many studies reported.

Methods: This observational analytic study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted on 60 thymoma patients who had undergone a chest CT scan at Dr Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta and held from September 2020 to February 2021. Two research variables were used: the incidence of intrathoracic metastases as the dependent variable and the thymoma CT scan image as the independent variable. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 software, including hypothesis testing and Chi-Square test with a 95% confidence level.

Results: Intrathoracic metastases were found in 78.3% of the thymomas patients. Based on the analysis between chest CT scan findings and the presence of intrathoracic metastases in thymoma patients, it was found that a significant association between tumor density and the incidence of intrathoracic metastases with heterogeneous density increased the risk of intrathoracic metastases 6.72 times higher with a form of subpleural nodules and pleural effusions with a p-value of 0.037 and 0.027.

Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between thymoma density based on a chest CT scan and the incidence of intrathoracic metastases in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta.


  1. Hsu C-H, Chan JK, Yin C-H, Lee C-C, Chern C-U, Liao C-I. Trends in the incidence of thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumor in the United States. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0227197–e0227197. Available from:
  2. Ekowati A, Astuti L. Gambaran dan Stadium Timoma pada CT-Scan. J Radiol Indones. 2017;3(1):10–6. Available from:
  3. Odev K, Ar?ba? BK, Nayman A, Ar?ba? OK, Alt?nok T, Küçükapan A. Imaging of Cystic and Cyst-like Lesions of the Mediastinum with Pathologic Correlation. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2012/06/29. 2012;2:33. Available from:
  4. Huang J, Detterbeck FC, Wang Z, Loehrer PJ. Standard Outcome Measures for Thymic Malignancies. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6(7):S1691–7. Available from:
  5. Khandelwal A, Sholl LM, Araki T, Ramaiya NH, Hatabu H, Nishino M. Patterns of metastasis and recurrence in thymic epithelial tumours: longitudinal imaging review in correlation with histological subtypes. Clin Radiol. 2016/06/03. 2016;71(10):1010–7. Available from:
  6. Miyamoto K, Acoba JD. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas: a review on pathology, presentation, staging, treatment, and novel systemic therapies. Eur Med J. 2017;5:100–7.
  7. Khan A, Jain AG, FaisalUddin M, Khetpal N, D'Souza J. Cardiac Tamponade in the Setting of a Thymoma. Cureus. 2019;11(6):e4952–e4952. Available from:
  8. Di Mango AL, Zanetti G, Marchiori E. Thymoma metastasis: Differential diagnosis of pleural nodules and masses. Lung India. 2018;35(4):369–70. Available from:
  9. Ruffini E, Detterbeck F, Van Raemdonck D, Rocco G, Thomas P, Weder W, et al. Thymic Carcinoma: A Cohort Study of Patients from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database. J Thorac Oncol. 2014;9(4):541–8. Available from:
  10. Okumura M, Yoshino I, Yano M, Watanabe S, Tsuboi M, Yoshida K, et al. Tumour size determines both recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival after surgical treatment for thymoma. Eur J Cardio-Thoracic Surg. 2019;56(1):174–81. Available from:
  11. Nicholson AG, Detterbeck FC, Marino M, Kim J, Stratton K, Giroux D, et al. The IASLC/ITMIG Thymic Epithelial Tumors Staging Project: Proposals for the T component for the Forthcoming (8th) Edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors. J Thorac Oncol. 2014;9(9):S73–80. Available from:
  12. Bian D, Zhou F, Yang W, Zhang K, Chen L, Jiang G, et al. Thymoma size significantly affects the survival, metastasis and effectiveness of adjuvant therapies: a population based study. Oncotarget. 2018;9(15):12273–83. Available from:
  13. Kawakita N, Kondo K, Toba H, Yoneda A, Takizawa H, Tangoku A. A case of atypical type A thymoma with vascular invasion and lung metastasis. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;66(4):239–42. Available from:
  14. Yamada Y, Yoshino I, Nakajima J, Miyoshi S, Ohnuki T, Suzuki M, et al. Surgical Outcomes of Patients With Stage III Thymoma in the Japanese Nationwide Database. Ann Thorac Surg. 2015;100(3):961–7. Available from:
  15. Qu Y, Liu G, Shi H, Liao M, Yang G, Tian Z. Preoperative CT Findings of Thymoma are Correlated with Postoperative Masaoka Clinical Stage. Acad Radiol. 2013;20(1):66–72. Available from:

How to Cite

Nikita, S. M. O., Widiastuti, W., Rima, A., Sarwono, P., Wujoso, H., & Rosati, A. (2021). The relationship between CT scan and incidence of intrathoracic thymoma metastases in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. Bali Medical Journal, 10(2), 741–745.




Search Panel