Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the health problems that is growing rapidly today. In Asia, majority of the population are non-obese with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Two main defects of T2DM, insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion due to reduced pancreatic Î² cells. Persistent metabolic stress due to hyperglycemic conditions, causes inflammation of the islets of Langerhans. Interleukin-1Î² (IL-1Î²) signaling is the most frequent pathway inducing Î² cell dysfunction. The bariatric Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) procedure increases particular hormone which stimulates Î² cell growth and pancreatic insulin production. Aside from the role as a blood glucose regulator, insulin also plays a role in anti-inflammatory modulation. Omentoplasty can be used to wrap organ or tissue structures. The Omentum has unique biological functions, including promote tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory effect. The study evaluates the effect of Sleeve Gastrectomy and pancreas Omentoplasty procedures on Î² cell insulin expression and Interleukin-1Î² (IL-1Î²) serum levels in non-obese diabetes mellitus subjects.
Methods: Experimental study with "post-test control group design" on 27 rats with Diabetes Mellitus was divided into 3 groups: K (control), P1 (Sleeve Gastrectomy), P2 (Sleeve Gastrectomy + Omentoplasty). 10 days after procedure, we evaluated the insulin expression of Î² cells using monoclonal antibody anti-insulin stain and IL-1Î² serum levels using rat IL-1Î² Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Correlation test with Spearman.
Results: Î² cell insulin expression increased in P2 (p=0.020), compared to control. While the IL-1Î² serum levels reduced significantly in all groups (p<0.001) compared to control. Moderate negative correlation (r = -0.476) between Î² cell insulin expression and IL-1Î² serum levels.
Conclusion: Sleeve gastrectomy and omentoplasty increased Î² cell insulin expression and decreased IL-1 Î² serum levels in non-obese rats with diabetes mellitus.