Background: Diabetic nephropathy (ND) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by persistent albuminuria. N-carboxymethyl lysine (CML) is the most extensive advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed from the fructoselysine amadori. Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein. The aim of the study is to analyze the differences in AGEs-CML and KIM-1 levels in the non-DM subject, DM without and with DN.
Methods: A cross-sectional analytic observational study was conducted on 25 non-DM subjects (K1), 25 DM without DN (K2), and 25 DM withÂ DN (K3) in PROLANIS Semarang. AGEs-CML and KIM-1 levels were measured using the ELISA method. Inter-group AGEs-CML levels were analyzed using the One way ANOVA test, followed by post hoc Games-Howell. The levels KIM-1 between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test levels, followed by Mann Whitney post hoc test and p<0.05, were considered significant.
Results: There were differences in AGEs-CML levels between K1 (739.89Â±227.37 ng/ml) and K3 (911.79Â±107.44) (p = 0.005), between K2 (798.82Â±153.03) and K3 (911.79 Â± 107.44) (p = 0.012) and there was no difference in K1 and K2 (p =0.535). There were differences in KIM-1 level between K1 [9.82 (5.99 â€“ 14.83) pg/ml] and K2 [15.31 (10.12 â€“ 30.21) (p <0.001)], between K1 [9.82 (5.99 â€“ 14.83)] and K3 [15.11 (8.27 â€“ 25.63) (p <0.001)] and there was no difference between K2 and K3 (p=0.720)
Conclusion: The highest AGEs-CML levels were significantly found in the K3 group, followed by K2 and the lowest in K3. KIM-1 levels were significantly found in the K2 group, followed by K3 and the lowest in K1.