Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin disease accompanied by an inflammatory reaction influenced by heredity and environment. Atopic dermatitis commonly occurs in infants and children. Overcoming dryness of the skin is an important strategy in the management of AD. One way is by using a moisturizer (emollient) to increase the skin barrier function. This study aimed to compare the degree of skin hydration based on moisturizing time in children with AD, immediately after bathing and 30 minutes after bathing.
Methods: This analytical study's design was quasi-experimental (pre-post clinical trial) conducted in dermatology-venereology policlinic of Universitas Sumatra Utara Hospital. Subjects who met inclusion criteria were children with AD, 2-14 years who met William's criteria,Â no recent use of topical preparations, and informed consent approved. The bath soap and moisturizer used were Johnson'sÂ® baby milk soap and those containing ceramide-3 (AtocalmÂ®), respectively, applied twice a day.Â Moisturizing time is given immediately and 30 minutes after bathing on the volar part of the right forearm and left forearm, respectively. The degree of skin hydration was measured by Corneometer CM 825Â®, taken four times on the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 21st day, and categorized into very dry skin, dry skin, and normal skin.Â Test analysis using SPSS software with p<0.05 was significant.
Result: Thirty-seven children with AD followed this study. The median age was 5 (2-13) years, female sex (21 children [56.8%]). There were differences in skin hydration between these groups. There was also significant right forearm volar skin hydration measured immediately after bathing, 1st, 8th, 15th, 21st day (42.3; 48.0; 55.3; 61.3 AU (Arbitrary Unit); p<0.001), respectively. Skin hydration on the left forearm's volar part is significant between 30 minutes after bathing, respectively 1st, 8th, 15th, 21st day (42.3; 44th,7th; 47.7; 52.0 AU; p<0.001). The total amount of dry skin and very dry skin was more in the moisturizing group 30 minutes after bathing than immediately after bathing.Â
Conclusion: Significant difference in skin hydration degrees found between immediately after the bathing group (on the right forearm volar) and 30 minutes after bathing (on the left forearm volar).