Background:Â Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) had dominating 60% of all azoospermia cases. Sperm Retrieval Techniques (SRT) continued with Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are therapy modalities helping infertile azoospermia to be fertile. There are some options of SRT such as PESA, MESA, TESE, TESA and microdissection-TESE (mTESE) to collect sperm from azoospermia cases. This study aims to evaluate some factors influencing sperm retrieval rate by mTESE in non-obstructive azoospermia cases.
Method:Â The data collection for eligible articles were conducted from 2011 to 2019. Different database and manual search methods were used to find the topic-related articles, particularly in some factors influencing the sperm retrieval rate of mTESE in NOA cases. A total of 21 relevant kinds of literature were studied regarding some factors that might be increasing or decreasing of sperm retrieval rate by mTESE procedure. However, four literature were elaborated further due to a similar approach to get the results.
Results:Â A previous study from Saudi Arabia with 264 patients samples found significant different on testosterone level who had successful Sperm Retrieval Rate (SRR) 57.25%. SRR was related by several factors of testosterone, FSH, bilateral testis retrieval and seminiferous tubules diameter taken as the earliest study from India. Besides, taking bilateral testis sperm retrieval also had low SRR 14.4%, but serum FSH level was not influenced by increasing SRR. The previous study found a very weak correlation between FSH and SRR. A different study was conducted in Italy found that all NOA patient who undergone mTESE procedure found the Maturation Arrest (MA) has the significant higher success SRR until 67% after Sertoli Cell Only (SCO) syndrome and sclera-hyalinosis histology.
Conclusion:Â SRR depends on some factors those influencing by hormonal baseline preoperative such as testosterone level and FSH serum level, technique and how mTESE done by the operator in mTESE procedure.