Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The influence of maternal age and gestational age to urinary tract infection in Lempake Primary Health Care, East Kalimantan, Indonesia


Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second-largest of the world’s health burden just behind the respiratory tract infection. Pregnant women are at risk of suffering from urinary tract infection due to anatomical and physiological changes along the urinary tract. The study aims to find out the influence of maternal age and gestational age to UTI in Primary Health Care Center Lempake.

Method: The research method was cross sectional with total sampling and using secondary data from the register book of emergency unit in Primary Health Care Center Lempake including all UTI cases in pregnancy from all pregnant patients undergone urinalysis from January 2017 until October 2018 (48 patients). It was then analyzed using logistic regression with STATA version 14.

Result: Most of subjects distribution were maternal age group 26-35 years old (39.6%), third trimester of pregnancy (66.7%), and negative result of bacteriuria (81.3%). Maternal age group 26-35 years old was the the most one suffering from UTI/positive result of bacteriuria (55.6%) and had tendency 5.4 times to suffer from urinary tract infection (p=0.147; CI=0.56-51.71; OR=5.36) while gestational age in third trimester showed significant influence to urinary tract infection (p=0.05; CI=0.03-1.00; OR=0.18). The prevalence of urinary tract infection in this research was 18.7%. 

Conclusion: There were significant influences among maternal age and gestational age to UTI in Primary Health Care Center Lempake.


  1. Fitzgerald MP, Graziano S. Anatomic and functional changes of the lower urinary tract during pregnancy. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;34:7-12.
  2. Derese B, Kedir H, Teklemariam Z, Weldegebreal F, Balakrishnan S. Bacterial Profile Of Urinary Tract Infection And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending At Antenatal Clinic In Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Therapeutics And Clinical Risk Management. 2016;12:251-60.
  3. Emiru T, Beyene G, Tsegaye W, Melaku S. Associated Risk Factors Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women At Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2013;25:6:292.
  4. Ocviyanti D, Fernando D. Therapeuitics guide of urinary tract infection. Indon Med Assoc. 2012;62:482-5.
  5. Foxman B. Epidemiology Of Urinary Tract Infections: Incidence, Morbidity, And Economic Costs. Am J Med. 2012;113: Suppl 1A:5S-13S.
  6. Statistical Center Samarinda. Statistical count in Samarinda; 2018.
  7. Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2000.
  8. Barros AJD, Hirakata VN. Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2003;3:21.
  9. Lee M, Bozzo P, Einarson A, Koren G. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Can Fam Physicians. 2008;54:853-4.
  10. Dielubanza EJ, Schaeffer AJ. Urinary Tract Infections In Women. Medical Clinics of North America. 2011;95:27-41.
  11. Faidah HS, Ashshi AM, El-Ella GAA, Al-Ghamdi AK, Mohamed A. Urinary Tract Infections Among Pregnant Women In Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Biomedical And Pharmacology Journal. 2013;6(1):1-7.
  12. Laily F, Lutan D, Amelia S, Tala MRZ, Nasution TA. Associated risk factors for urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Primary Health Care Center Kenangan, Deli Serdang district. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 125.
  13. Bukitwetan P, Salim OC, Surjawidjaja JE, Aidilfit M, Lesmana M. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Trisakti Medical Journal. 2010;2:1-6.
  14. Munthe IG. Comparison of bacteria uria in pregnant and non pregnant women at H. Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan. Medan: Department of Obstetric and Gynaecology Sumatera Utara University; 2014.
  15. Zahroh F, Roebijoso J, Samsu N. Aymtomatic bacteriuria with associated risk factors in pregnant women in Primary Health Care Center Janti Kota Malang. Brawijaya Medical Journal. 2016;1(4):228-34.
  16. Gusrianty AR, Astuti S, Hartinah A, Indah S. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at Mekargalih Village, Sumedang Regency JSK. 2015;1(12):12-18.
  17. Delima M, Andi AA. Correlation between demographcical characteristics with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Alami Journal. 2017;1(1): 18-28.
  18. Fakhrizal E. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors. JIK. 2017;11(1):19-24.
  19. Hamdan HZ, Ziad AH, Ali MS. Adam KI. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:2-9.
  20. Rejali M, Ahmadi SS. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Associated Effective Factors During Pregnancy in Shahrekord, Iran. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research. 2018;5(2):11-16.
  21. Sri-Budayanti N, Sukrama I, Aditarini M, Sukardika I, Suata I. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal. 2012;1(2):74-77.

How to Cite

Meiyanto, J. D. (2019). The influence of maternal age and gestational age to urinary tract infection in Lempake Primary Health Care, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 8(3), 762–766.




Search Panel

Johanes Dwi Meiyanto
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal