Background: The use of interventional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures required intravascular iodinated contrast are performed in millions of patients worldwide and are steadily increasing the risks of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Statins are primarily used in cardiovascular medicine for their lipid-lowering effects but they possess remarkable pleiotropic effects such as improving endothelial function as well as decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. A network meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of different statins in prevention of CI-AKI and also to investigate which type and dose of statins maybe the best choice specifically in CKD patients who have higher risk.Â
Methods: We performed a pairwise and network meta analysis of 14 randomized studies (9847 patients) comparing a total of 6 different statins: rosuvastatin high dose, atorvastatin high dose, simvastatin high dose, rosuvastatin regular dose, atorvastatin regular dose, pravastatin regular dose versus each other and versus placebo in CKD patients undergoing PCI with iodinated contrast for prevention of CIAKI. Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct databases were searched up to May 2019. The data were pooled using STATA, and R version statistics calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: Statin loading before contrast administration was associated with a significantly reduced risk of CI-AKI in patients with CKD undergoing cardiac catheterization (pooled OR= 0.51; P=0.0001). Regular dose pravastatin comprised the best effect size for a reduction in CIAKI risk (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.72, p=0.006). Regular dose pravastatin and high dose atorvastatin were ranked as the highest probability to be the best treatment (Pbest) with 44% and 31% respectively for effect on CIAKI prevention.
Conclusion: Preloading with statins is associated with significantly reduced risk of CI-AKI in patients with CKD undergoing cardiac catheterization. Regular dose pravastatin and high dose atorvastatin have the highest probability to be the most effective prevention strategy.