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Viral and non-viral causes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Arifin Achmad General Hospital Riau Province during 2013-2017


Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the six most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recent reports have suggested an increasing prevalence of HCC without evidence of hepatitis B and C infection (non-viral HCC).

Methods: This was a descriptive study with cross-sectional approach that aimed to describe the distribution of viral and non-viral risk causes of hepatocellular carcinoma cases at Arifin Achmad General Hospital (AAGH), Riau Province in the period of 2013-2017. Data were obtained from medical records of HCC patients using total sampling method.

Results: We included 129 cases of whom 64 (49,6%) were associated with viral causes and 65 (50,4%) were  non-viral HCC. Bivariate analyses showed that there was no age difference between viral and non-viral HCC patients but the prevalence of non-viral HCC was significantly higher in females than males (odds ratio [OR], 3,12 ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1,2-8,1; p=0,016). In addition, patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <400 ng/mL were more frequently associated with non-viral HCC compared with those with elevated AFP ³400 ng/mL (OR, 3,71; 95%CI, 1,49-9,26; p=0,004).

Conclusion: There was an equal distribution of viral and non-viral causes in HCC cases at AAGH, Riau Province during 2013-2017. This suggests changing etiologies of HCC that may impact HCC surveillance.


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How to Cite

Arfianti, A., Putra, Z. D., Delhaldita, E., Sembiring, L. P., & Asputra, H. (2019). Viral and non-viral causes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Arifin Achmad General Hospital Riau Province during 2013-2017. Bali Medical Journal, 8(3).




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Arfianti Arfianti
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Zulfatta Dwi Putra
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Ekral Delhaldita
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Ligat Pribadi Sembiring
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Hendra Asputra
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