Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with an increasing prevalence each year. Chronic hyperglycemia causes impaired function and organ damage. Centella asiatica is a plant that contains antioxidants with the main component of pentacyclic triterpenes that has been proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to analyze the changes in blood glucose level, the weight of liver, kidney, heart, and brain of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced male Wistar rats.
Methods: The research consists of four treatments: negative control (P1), positive control (P2), ethanol extract of Centella asiatica with a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight (P3), and ethanol extract of Centella asiatica with a dose of 600 mg/kg of body weight (P4). The treatments were conducted within four weeks at the laboratory of PSPG UGM Yogyakarta. The statistical tests used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to determine differences between control groups and the treatment groups.
Results: The induction of nicotinamide and streptozotocin led to type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001). The administration of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica reduced blood glucose level significantly (p = 0.001). The administration of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica increased the weight of the liver significantly (p = 0.030). There were significant differences between the intervention group of Centella asiatica dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight and 600 mg/kg of body weight compared to positive control.
Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Centella asiatica with a dose of 600 mg/kg of body weight can potentially improve hyperglycemia and increase the weight of the liver organ, which is an indicator of liver cell regeneration in the animal model of diabetes mellitus type 2.